Last Week's Portion


Mattot | מטות | "Tribes "

Portion Outline

  • Torah
    • Numbers 30:1 | Vows Made by Women
    • Numbers 31:1 | War against Midian
    • Numbers 31:13 | Return from the War
    • Numbers 31:25 | Disposition of Captives and Booty
    • Numbers 32:1 | Conquest and Division of Transjordan
  • Prophets
    • Jer 1:1 | Introduction
    • Jer 1:4 | Jeremiah's Call and Commission
    • Jer 2:1 | God Pleads with Israel to Repent

Portion Summary  Read

The name of the forty-second reading from the Torah is Mattot (מטות), which means “tribes.” The name is derived from the words of Numbers 30:1, which says, “Then Moses spoke to the heads of the tribes of the sons of Israel.” Numbers 30 discusses the laws of vows and oaths. Numbers 31 tells the story of Israel’s war with Midian. Numbers 32 relates the story of how the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half-tribe of Mannaseh came to inherit the land east of the Jordan River. Except in biblical calendar leap years, Mattot is read together with the subsequent Torah portion, Massei, on the same Sabbath.

Portion Commentary  Read

The Sin of Triangulation

Thought for the Week:

"Take full vengeance for the sons of Israel on the Midianites; afterward you will be gathered to your people." (Numbers 31:2) Why did God want the Israelites to take vengeance on the Midianites?


In an effort to ensnare the Israelites, the Midianites and Moabites had sent their daughters to entice the men of Israel into worshipping Baal of Peor. The plan worked. Many Israelite men were led away by the seductive allure of the Moabite and Midianite women. They committed fornication with them and worshipped idols. Their wickedness incited the wrath of the LORD, who struck Israel with a devastating plague.

This explains why the LORD commanded Moses, "Take full vengeance for the sons of Israel on the Midianites" (Numbers 31:2), but it also raises another question. The Midianites were not solely responsible for the affair of Peor. They had been coconspirators with the Moabites. The Moabites also used their daughters to seduce the men of Israel, as Scripture says, "The people began to play the harlot with the daughters of Moab" (Numbers 25:1). Why then did God say, "Be hostile to the Midianites and strike them" (Numbers 25:17), and, "Take full vengeance ... on the Midianites" (Numbers 31:2), but regarding Moab He only said, "Do not harass Moab, nor provoke them to war" (Deuteronomy 2:9)? The Moabites and Midianites were responsible for the same sin, but one was singled out for punishment while the other was not.

The Moabites had a legitimate concern and grievance against Israel. The hosts of Israel had entered their land and were camping on their territory. Balak, the Moabite king, was afraid that the throngs of Israel were going to strip bare his land and conquer his kingdom. The Midianites, however, had no legitimate interests at stake in a fight with Israel. Their territory was not threatened, and Israel had done nothing against them. Rashi says, "The Midianites interfered in a quarrel that did not concern them."

The Midianites were not only guilty of the affair at Peor, they were also guilty of triangulation. This can be compared to a man who sees two dogs fighting in the street. He tries to stop the fight by grabbing one of the dogs by the ears. As a result, he gets bit by the dog. The Proverbs say, "Like one who takes a dog by the ears is he who passes by and meddles with strife not belonging to him" (Proverbs 26:17).

Triangulation happens when a person gets involved in a quarrel between other people. It happens when you pick up someone else's grievance and carry a grudge on their behalf. By imposing oneself in a situation that is not really your business, you needlessly place yourself in harm's way.

According to Rashi's explanation, God forgave the Moabites because they had a legitimate reason to fear and undermine Israel. He did not forgive the Midianites, though, because they had needlessly stuck their noses into someone else's business.

Learn even more!

This Portions Commentary is adapted from Torah Club, a unique Bible Study program that will change your worldview! Join thousands of students who have enrolled and enrich your life! Click for more info ยป

This Week:




  • Torah reading:
    Numbers 33:1-36:13
  • Prophets reading:
    Jeremiah 2:4-28, 3:4,4:1-2
  • Gospel reading:
    Matthew 24:1-25:46

Torah Portions Schedule

Download or Order our free Torah Portions reading schedules for 5775 (2014-15).

Current Schedule for 5774 (2013-14)